There are two main hypotheses that suggest signals should generally be honest; (a) organisms are physically constrained to honesty, with a key example from carotenoid derived colouration  and (b) the ‘handicap principle’ where honesty is maintained through costly signals . However, Johnstone and Grafen  used game theory to argue that deception can be evolutionary stable if on average signals are honest. According to their work there are three key factors that will influence the success of deceptive signals:
i.The frequency of deceptive signals
Higher frequencies of deceptive signals are expected to reduce the success of deceptive signals.
ii.The cost of not reacting to an honest signal
Higher costs are expected to elicit greater response rates to deceptive signals.
iii.The cost of being deceived
Where lower costs should be coupled with higher responses to deceptive signals.